Crop Biology Documents - OECD

Consensus Document on the Biology of Triticum aestivum (Bread Wheat)

Triticum aestivum, bread wheat, belongs to the order Poales (Glumiflorae), family Poaceae (Gramineae), tribe Triticeae, genus Triticum. The tribe Triticeae consists of 18 genera which are divided into two sub-groups, the Triticinae and the Hordeinae. The major genera in the sub-group Triticinae are Triticum, Aegilops, Secale, Agropyron and Haynaldia (Odenbach 1985, Zeller 1985, Körber-Grohne 1988). Attachments:  Biology_of_Wheat

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Consensus Document on the Biology of Bananas and Plantains (Musa spp.)

Edible bananas and plantains belong primarily to Musa section Musa (traditionally Eumusa). Within this section, the originally Asian species Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana have provided the sources for domestication and development of the great majority of edible fruit. Dessert and cooking bananas and plantains are major foods worldwide, cultivated in over 130 countries throughout tropical regions and in some subtropical regions, in Asia,…

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Consensus Document on the Biology of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

Three subspecies of cassava have been recognized: Manihot esculenta ssp. esculenta is the cultivated strain, and M. esculenta ssp. flabellifolia and M. esculenta ssp. peruviana are wild forms (Allem, 1999, 2002). In this document, “cassava” will be used to refer to the cultivated strain, M. esculenta ssp. esculenta. Common synonyms in other languages are manioc (French), mandioca, macaxeira, and aipim (Portuguese), yuca (Spanish), and manioca (Italian). Attachments:  Biology_of_Cassava

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Consensus Document on the Biology of Cotton (Gossypium spp.)

Generally cotton refers to four species of the genus Gossypium L. apparently domesticated independently in four separate regions, in both the Old World and the New World (Sauer, 1993; Brubaker et al., 1999c). The word is derived from the Arabic “quotn”, “kutum” or “gutum” and refers to the crop that produces spinnable fibres on the seed coat (Lee, 1984;…

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Consensus Document on the Biology of Zea mays subsp. mays (Maize)

Maize, or corn, is a member of the Maydeae tribe of the grass family, Poaceae. It is a robust monoecious annual plant, which requires the help of man to disperse its seeds for propagation and survival. Corn is the most efficient plant for capturing the energy of the sun and converting it into food, it has a great plasticity adapting…

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Consensus Document on the Biology of Papaya (Carica papaya)

Papaya, Carica papaya L., is an almost herbaceous (succulently soft-wooded), typically unbranched small tree in the family Caricaceae. Europeans first encountered papaya in the Western Hemisphere tropics by at least the early 1500s (Sauer, 1966), and various interests were soon disseminating it widely (Ferrão, 1992). Papaya is now cultivated worldwide in tropical and subtropical climates mainly for its melon-like fruit.…

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Consensus Document on the Biology of Beta Vulgaris L. (Sugar Beet)

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. altissima) belongs to the family Chenopodiaceae and the genus B. vulgaris comprises several cultivated forms of B. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris. Cultivars include leaf beet (var. cicla) and beetroot (root beet USA). Attachments:  Biology_of_Sugar_Beet

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Consensus Document on the Biology of Helianthus annuus L. (Sunflower)

The sunflower belongs to the genus Helianthus in the Composite family (Asterales order), which includes species with very diverse morphologies (herbs, shrubs, lianas, etc.). The genus Helianthus belongs to the Heliantheae tribe. This includes approximately 50 species originating in North and Central America. Attachments:  Biology_of_Sunflower

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Consensus Document on the Biology of Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

Sugar is commercially produced from either sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) or sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Sugarcane is a tall-growing monocotyledonous crop that is cultivated in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, primarily for its ability to store high concentrations of sucrose, or sugar, in the stem. Modern sugarcane cultivars that are cultivated for sugar production are founded on interspecific…

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Consensus Document on the Biology of Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Soybean)

Cultivated soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., is a diploidized tetraploid (2n=40), in the family Leguminosae, the subfamily Papilionoideae, the tribe Phaseoleae, the genus Glycine Willd. and the subgenus Soja (Moench). It is an erect, bushy herbaceous annual that can reach a height of 1.5 metres. Three types of growth habit can be found amongst soybean cultivars: determinate, semi-determinate and indeterminate (Bernard and Weiss, 1973). Determinate…

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