This document addresses the biology of Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation), with particular reference to the Australian environment, production and use. Information included relates to the taxonomy and origins of cultivated carnation, general descriptions of its morphology, reproductive biology, physiology, biochemistry, biotic interactions, toxicity, allergenic potential, and weediness. This document also addresses the potential for gene transfer to occur to closely related species. The purpose of this document is to provide baseline information about the parent organism for use in risk analysis of genetically modified carnation that may be released into the Australian environment.