This document describes the biology of Torenia spp. with particular reference to the Australian environment, cultivation and use. Information included relates to the taxonomy and origins of cultivated Torenia spp., general descriptions of their morphology, reproductive biology, biochemistry, and biotic and abiotic interactions. This document also addresses the potential for gene transfer to occur to closely related species. The purpose of this document is to provide baseline information about the parent organism for use in risk assessments of genetically modified (GM) torenia that may be released into the Australian environment.